WHY THE FIRST AND LAST IP ADDRESS OF A GROUP ARE NOT USED AS HOST ADDRESS?

Well if you are aware of IP Subnetting then you won’t be needing a background
check. For the others let’s take a plunge back. IP Subnetting basically refers to
dividing the network into several parts on account of ownership or the amount
to be used. For example if some organisation needs a network to host n systems
then the network we are provided must be divided into a small part that can
accommodate few more hosts than n.

Image :- 01. Binary Notation

An IP address is a four byte unique number to guide the network and router, so
that an easy transfer of message and data is possible. For class A the first Byte’s
first bit is fixed as 0, class B has 10, class C has 110, class D has 1110 and class
E has 1111.
Now if we convert it into hexadecimal the following result is seen

The network ID is denoted by the first IP address of the class or group so it
cannot be used as a host address. As for the last address it is the Default Subnet
Mask which is an address that is used to denote every host in the network(when
you need to send data to every host inside a network you use the Default Subnet
Mask).

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