The most important aspect of archaeological source is the large number of excavated ruined cities wherein lie a large number of monuments.
The following are the important excavated cities and towns of ancient India, Rajgir (ancient Rajagriha), Vaishali, Nalanda, Bodh Gaya, etc., in Bihar, Peshawar (ancient Purushapura), Taxila etc., in North-western Frontier Province and the Punjab; Ujjain, Sanchi etc., in Madhya Pradesh; Bairat, Rairh, Sambhar, etc., in Rajasthan; Langhnaj, Patan, Amreli, etc., in Gujarat; Kolhapur, Kondapur etc., in Deccan; Chandravali, Brahmagiri etc., in Mysore; Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda etc., in Andhra Pradesh; Virampattanam etc. in Tamil Nadu; Mathura; Varanasi, Sravasti, Kausambi, Ahichchhatra, Hastinapur etc., in U.P.; Parihaspur, Avantipur, Martand etc., in Kashmir.
Special mention may be made here of the pre-Aryan civilization of Indus Valley, excavated partly in Mohenjodaro and Chanhu-daro in Sind, and partly in Harappa in the Punjab during the later phase of British rule in India. With extensive excavations in post-independent period, sites have been discovered in a large area consisting North-Western India, Rajasthan and the Deccan. Mehrgarh excavations deserve a special mention since Mehrgarh, located on the bank of the Bolan river in the Kochi plain (Baluchistan), is the only known Neolithic settlement in the Indian subcontinent, attributed to approximately 7000 B.C.