Basics of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics :

“It is the branch of science which deal with the study of energy interaction of the system with respect to surrounding and its impact on properties of system”.

“It is the branch of science which deal with the study of B.E equilibrium, Energy, Entropy”.

Or ” It is branch of science which deal with the conversion of disorganized form of energy into organised form.

System :

Anything under consideration Or It is a controlled region in space over which our attention is focused.

Surrounding :

Anything external to the system is called surroundings.

Boundary :

Which separates the system from the surrounding.

Note :

  • Boundary may be real imaginary in thermodynamics system.
  • Real boundaries are represented by continuous line or curve, where as imaginary boundaries are represented by dotted line or curve.
  • Surrounding may be fixed (rigid) or movable.
  • It should be considered of nearly zero thickness.

Types of Thermodynamics System :

There are three types of thermodynamics system in this world given below in details :

  1. Open Thermodynamics System : In this thermodynamics system both mass interaction and energy interaction takes place between system and surrounding. For Example : Boiler, Turbine, Condenser, Pump, Compressor, Evaporator, Nozzle, Diffuser, Piston Cylinder arrangement with valves.
  2. Closed Thermodynamics System : In closed thermodynamics system only energy interaction takes place between system and surrounding. For example : Piston cylinder arrangement without walls.
  3. Isolated Thermodynamics System : In which neither mass nor energy interaction takes place between system and surrounding. For example : Universe, Thermoflask

Microscopic :
Individual molecular particle is under consideration also called statistical.
Macroscopic :
The time average behavior of the molecule is under consideration is called classical.

Continumn Approach :
In this approach we are considering our matters as continuous .
Note :- In case of Rarefied theory the concept of continumn is not valid.

Thermodynamic Property :

It represents the characteristic of the system. There two types of thermodynamics properties listed below :

  1. Intensive Property : These properties are independent of mass. For example: Pressure, Temperature, Conductivity, Specific heat, density ratio of two extensive property, etc.
  2. Extensive Property : These are dependent on mass. For example : Volume, All form of energy,heat capacity, etc.

Thermodynamic Equilibrium :
A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium when they are in thermal equilibrium, Mechanical equilibrium and Chemical equilibrium.

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